FOSSATI’S ESCAPE FROM PARETIAN THEORY:THE SUBJECTIVIST APPROACH

Fossati tackled the problem of building dynamic analysis using the Wieser- Mayer subjective approach in the two essays Osservazioni sulla legge di Wieser (1935) and Ricerca sulle relazion i tra il tempo e l‟utilità (1937). In the first he elaborated on the essential methodological component of Wieser‘s theory in the dynamic context: planning activity. He used the idea of a planning period to build a dynamic conception of time. Fossati accepted the idea that the crucial distinction between the static and dynamic case was that, in the latter, marginal utility depends not only on the quantity of an economic good, but also on the time in which the good is available. In dynamic analysis, the economic calculus must be extended to encompass the entire planning horizon . Basically, Fossati‘s argument in the 1935 essay was that it is possible to see the same physical co mmodity as two different commodities, of today and tomorrow, because they are available in different periods of time. It was by using the same idea that K. Arrow and G.

Debreu were able to construct their famous model of intertemporal equ ilibrium twenty years later. However, this formalist way of solving the problem was not coherent with the Austrian approach, and it was abandoned in Fossati‘s later article, Ricerca sulle relazioni tra il tempo e l‟utilità (1937), where Fossati analysed the functional approach ‘s problem of building a dynamic conception of economy by focusing, from the causal- genetic point of view, on the interrelations am ong phenomena, searching for the influence of disequilibrium forces in the economy. Fossati was persuaded that the differences between these two approaches were not as wide as might be imagined at first glance, because the functional equilibrium was a particular case, the static one, of the general case, which was the dynamic one.

If a difference existed, it was an ontological one concerning the nature of the objects under investigation. The functional theory was static insofar as it stressed the fact that the concept of equilibrium was indispensable for analysis of the intertemporal system of prices, while the causal approach was truly dynamic insofar as its starting point was the limited extension of forward market s in the real world: The two types of investigation are thus performed on two different terrains, the first has its rigidly static nature, the second is essentially dynamic . The functional theory can disregard the time factor as an element operating within it, since the equilibrium is achieved instantaneously , whereas the genetic- causal theory is not able to disregard time because it is concrete. This concept of the new school of Vienna can be interpreted, in this re spect, as an attempt to make the static concept as dynamic as possible, so that it becomes a particular case of dynamics (Fossati, 1937, p. 36). What was distinctive of Fossati‘s approach was its emphasis on Universal Joint Manufacturer in India what can be called structural uncertainty , that is, a lack of complete knowledge on the part of the economic agent about the structure itself of the economic problem that the agent faces. Economic inquiry becomes dynamic not because time elapses but rather as an inevitable consequence of our ignorance.

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The causal- genetic approach requires the principle of perfect foresight, the cornerstone of the traditional theory, to be abandoned. Fossati shared the view that all human action takes place in a wo rld of uncertainty and insisted that our ignorance of the future invalidates any theory that attributes knowledge of the future to the economic actors engaged in providing for it. Fossati developed this central dynamic theory based upon the subjective dime nsion of expectations by moving in two different but complementary directions. The first was an attempt to formalize subjective uncertainty in the intertemporal equilibrium within the Austrian setting. The second was based on the role o f money in the economic system. Among other aspects, Fossati considered also the possibility of integrating the Paretian equilibrium with the approach of General Theory , according to his personal predilection for emphasizing the contact points between diff erent theories.

In addition to being a new way to initiate and maintain personal relations, text messaging has also gained a reputation as a form of political communication. This reputation dates back to an event in 2000, known as 'People Power 2' that occurred in the capital of the Philippines, Manila, when text messaging was used to mobilize people for the mass demonstration — a demonstration that eventually led to the Philippine president's removal from office. People Power 2 is often cited as a symbol of the democratizing potential of SMS and a unifying element trace mobile number in what has been called 'Generation Text'. The link between SMS and politics remains strong in the Philippines, and its use was expected to be widespread in the electoral campaign in 2004 as a means to distribute news and rumours among voters. Reuters, for instance, reported in a story dated March 2004, that By the time Filipinos go to the polls on May 10 to elect a president and 17,000 other officials across the archipelago, many niobile phone owners will have received hundreds of messages aimed at influencing their decisions at the polling booth.

A few days before, terrorists had used mobile phones to detonate bombs placed in Madrid commuter trains, killing 202 people. A massive wave of political unrest broke across the country on the eve of the election, with text messages being used covertly to coordinate mass demonstra-tions that were supposed to be banned in the 24 hours preceding the vote. Reports in the media claim that on the day before the vote, SMS traffic was up 20 per cent above normal, doubling to 40 per cent higher on election day. Many of those messages it appears were intended to mobilize demonstrations and counter-demonstrations. In the end, election turnout surpassed that of previous elections, suggesting that text messaging may have played a key role in shaping the future of Spanish politics.- Howard Rheingold, who has written about the political power of the mobile phone, refers to this as a 'technology that amplifies collective action', enabling relatively spontaneous gatherings and quick dissemination of political messages to large numbers of citizens.